La crisis agraria y las causas del paro. Mucho más profundas que los TLC

María Soledad Betancur Betancur, coordinadora Observatorio de Derechos Humanos IPC.

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Paro Agrario. Foto Cumbre Agraria 2014

Las consecuencias de los Tratados de Libre Comercio (TLC) han aparecido como una de las causas centrales que impulsaron a los campesinos del país a reconocerse como actores y a poner su agenda ante el Estado y la sociedad colombiana. Si bien este componente del modelo agrario, los TLC, ha sido un factor desestructurante de la producción y la economía campesina, no podemos olvidar que el modelo agrario del país se  hace cada vez más concentrador y excluyente.

Dicha exclusión no ha sido solo social y económica, sino que ha estado acompañada de un despojo violento de bienes comunales y propiedades de pequeños y medianos campesinos. Este despojo ha dejado más de 4 millones de desplazados y, la contraparte, alrededor de 6.7  millones de ha. de tierras expropiadas o abandonadas que han incrementado la concentración de la tierra. El informe general del grupo de Memoria Histórica (2013) afirma que:

Todos los informes ilustran la gradual convergencia entre la guerra y el problema agrario (despojos violentos, concentración ociosa de la tierra, usos inadecuados, colonizaciones y titulaciones fallidas). Pero a los viejos problemas se suman otros nuevos, que muestran las dinámicas inauguradas por el narcotráfico, la explotación minera y energética, los modelos agroindustriales y las alianzas criminales entre paramilitares, políticos, servidores públicos, élites locales económicas y empresariales, y narcotraficantes, (P. 21).

Los informes ilustraron las violentas y fraudulentas acciones de las élites y de los poderes regionales y nacionales para impedir que se concretaran los esfuerzos institucionales, promovidos por el mismo Estado, en aras de redistribuir o transformar los patrones inequitativos e improductivos sobre la tierra. A las reformas agrarias y a los intentos por democratizar la tenencia de tierras o de restituir a quienes han sido despojados, tanto en el pasado como en el presente, se han opuesto de manera fraudulenta los sectores que han fundado en la tierra su poder económico y político, por medio de artilugios jurídicos y métodos violentos, incluyendo el asesinato de dirigentes y la persecución a quienes integran las organizaciones campesinas. (P. 22)

La cara complementaria de este despojo ha sido ha sido una política que ha priorizado lo que las elites llaman competitividad, más que la equidad. Como afirma Cecilia Montaño[1], ex ministra de Agricultura, haciendo un balance del programa Agro Ingreso Seguro (AIS) en el periodo del ex presidente Álvaro Uribe, “del 85% de los recursos públicos que se le asignaron a este programa, 48% fueron para la competitividad, 16% para adecuación de tierras, 10% para ciencia y tecnología y 9% para apoyos directos… El tema de equidad solo recibe el 15% de los recursos ejecutados: 6% para acceso a tierras y 6% para subsidios de vivienda”.

Pero más indignante fue la política de entregar de manera directa los recursos a familias que concentran grandes cantidades de tierra en el país. Mientras en 2007, como ayuda por las consecuencias de la ola invernal, un campesino de Boyacá recibía menos de 100 mil pesos, algunos hasta menos de 10 mil (Vea la lista de los beneficiarios de Boyacá aquí)[2] -en total unos 128 millones para más de 2.200 campesinos-, el programa AIS entregaba a “ Lacouture Dangond en 2007 subsidios por 2.343 millones y en el 2008 por un total de 2.888 millones de pesos, mientras que los Vives Lacouture, el perito dijo que recibió subsidios por 435 millones de pesos en el 2007 y por 6.285 millones en el 2008”. En total las familias de la costa recibieron 21.000 millones como lo manifestó recientemente un perito de la Fiscalía General ante la Corte Suprema de Justicia[3]. De los balances entregados a inicios de 2009 se afirmaba que 464 empresas o personas recibieron 132 mil millones; de éstas, 15 familias recibieron 27 mil millones, mientras que 25 mil campesinos recibieron 122 mil millones[4].  

Por ello, la explicación de la crisis agraria basada solo en las consecuencias del TLC, es una parte del problema pero no lo es todo, pues el modelo agrario del país es la consecuencia de una estrategia de concentración de la riqueza. Un clásico ejemplo de esto son los privilegios de la política contenida en Agro Ingreso Seguro del periodo de  Álvaro Uribe Vélez.  En ella se evidencia la distorsión de las políticas,  AIS nace por la Ley 1133 de 2007 para “proteger los ingresos de los productores que resulten afectados (…) con ocasión de la internacionalización de la economía, su verdadera motivación fue calmar a los grandes empresarios agrícolas frente al TLC con EE.UU., pero se abandonó a los verdaderos perdedores, los pequeños campesinos”, éstos recibieron del programa en promedio 5 millones de crédito, mientras los grandes recibieron 2.125 millones (425 veces más que los pequeños). Lo anterior sin contar que en asistencia técnica los gremios recibieron el 96% de los recursos asignados a este rubro, según se afirma en el artículo citado de Cecilia López.

Así entonces, las protestas y movilizaciones que se vienen desplegando a lo ancho y largo del país son la expresión de la indignación de pequeños productores del campo colombiano que hoy sienten que llego el momento de ponerle al Estado, representado en este periodo por el gobierno de Juan Manuel Santos, una agenda en la que se reclaman como productores de riqueza, se visibilizan ante el país y buscan revertir políticas que los han excluido de múltiples formas.

En ese sentido, la Comisión de la Memoria afirma en su informe: «…en medio de ese arrasamiento, las organizaciones campesinas siguen reivindicando sus legítimos anhelos por acceder a la tierra y por contar con condiciones seguras para trabajarla y vivir dignamente. Además, continuamente dan muestras de su capacidad para lograr un país que reconozca en el campo y en su gente a sujetos con derechos y con un enorme potencial para superar las crisis y aportar a un desarrollo incluyente y sostenible.» (P. 22)

Son justamente estos anhelos de vida digna y justicia económica y social, los que se vienen expresando ahora en los olvidados territorios rurales y, también, en las calles de las principales ciudades colombianas, reflejando una afortunada solidaridad de diversos actores. Así que la agenda de un país justo y equitativo es el proyecto que se está moviendo y construyendo en las calles de Colombia.

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