Introducción

La solución al problema de las drogas ilícitas corresponde al cuarto punto del Acuerdo de Paz en el campo de los cultivos de uso ilícito, uno de los tantos problemas por afrontar en la solución del conflicto armado en Colombia. “La persistencia de los cultivos está ligada en parte a la existencia de condiciones de pobreza, marginalidad, débil presencia institucional, además de la existencia de organizaciones criminales dedicadas al narcotráfico”[1]. Se reconoce así que, además de ser parte constitutiva del conflicto armado, la solución definitiva a este problema tiene que ver con la implementación de la Reforma Rural Integral y la construcción de la paz en el campo.

En lógica de seguimiento, lo que se pretende con esta nota es una aproximación a los avances, tensiones y dificultades que se están presentando en la sustitución de cultivos de uso ilícito, desde la mirada de comunidades y organizaciones campesinas de cinco municipios del Norte y Bajo Cauca en el Departamento de Antioquia, en interacción con representantes nacionales de la Agencia Nacional para la Sustitución de Cultivos de Uso Ilícito, y de otras instituciones de carácter regional y local.

Este artículo hace parte del boletín Paz para el Cambio

 Lo propuesto en el Acuerdo de Paz

El cuarto punto del Acuerdo de Paz aboga por otro enfoque para tratar el problema de las drogas y cultivos de uso ilícito, planteando para el consumo un problema de salud pública y para los cultivos, un tratamiento social y económico antes que una política criminal. De esa forma, se concibe una sustitución de cultivos con propuestas de productos alternativos con base en programas de desarrollo bien concebidos en los territorios, con la participación de las comunidades y organizaciones de campesinos y campesinas cultivadores sujetos de la sustitución, y con la participación de las instituciones nacionales, departamentales y municipales del Estado, así como de los integrantes de las FARC en su proceso de reincorporación.  Aunque en el acuerdo el Gobierno no renuncia a la erradicación forzada, si deja claro como prioridad la sustitución voluntaria que se empezó a realizar a través del “Programa Nacional Integral de Sustitución de Cultivos de Uso Ilícito- PINIS”, esencia de la propuesta acordada.

El punto 4.1 del acuerdo comienza diciendo:

“Programas de sustitución de cultivos de uso ilícito. Planes integrales de desarrollo con participación de las comunidades – hombres y mujeres – en el diseño, ejecución y evaluación de los programas de sustitución y recuperación ambiental de las áreas afectadas por dichos cultivos” [2].  

Y más adelante, refiriéndose a la construcción conjunta, participativa y concertada, continúa afirmando el acuerdo que:

“La construcción conjunta toma como base la decisión de las comunidades —hombres y mujeres– de abandonar estos cultivos y transitar mediante la sustitución hacia otras actividades económicas. La concertación con las comunidades es prioritaria para planificar y establecer los lineamientos de ejecución y control del programa en el territorio” [3].

Es pues, un acuerdo para construir un plan concertado con comunidades y organizaciones en la sustitución de cultivos, en el que las acciones parten de la decisión y la voluntad de los campesinos y campesinas de transitar hacia actividades económicas diferentes, a otros cultivos que constituyan los programas alternativos y los planes para llevarlos a efecto.

Los planes municipales y los planes comunitarios en las veredas son la base del programa nacional de la sustitución. Es un componente de la Reforma Rural Integral y se relaciona en varios de los territorios con los Planes de Desarrollo con Enfoque Territorial. La pregunta es: ¿Qué tanto se avanza en esta dirección?

 

Lo que viene haciendo el Gobierno Nacional

El Gobierno Nacional se ha propuesto una meta a dos años para sustituir y erradicar 100 mil hectáreas de cultivos de uso ilícito, la mitad vía sustitución y la otra mitad erradicación forzada. Estas dos estrategias, contradictorias en la política antidrogas, se han puesto en marcha en forma simultánea. El 27 de enero de 2017, el Gobierno Nacional y las FARC lanzaron el Programa Nacional Integral de Sustitución de Cultivos de Uso Ilícito (PINIS) para sustituir 50.000 hectáreas[4]. Y el 17 de febrero de 2017, mediante resolución 249, el presidente Juan Manuel Santos facultó a la Policía Nacional para contratar a quienes adelantarán la erradicación manual de 50.000 hectáreas de cultivos ilícitos[5].

Recorrido del Presidente por Puerto Valdivia, en Antioquia, donde revisó los planes de ocupación y fortalecimiento social en antiguas zonas de conflicto. Además respaldó las iniciativas de sustitución junto a la Gobernación de Antioquia.
Recorrido del Presidente por Puerto Valdivia, en Antioquia, donde revisó los planes de ocupación y fortalecimiento social en antiguas zonas de conflicto. Además respaldó las iniciativas de sustitución junto a la Gobernación de Antioquia.

En el campo de la erradicación se expresa otra tensión derivada de la controversia por las fumigaciones aéreas con glifosato. Mientras el gobierno nacional en cabeza del presidente ha mantenido una postura de no a las fumigaciones, amparado no solo en el acuerdo con las FARC sino en la decisión  de la Corte Constitucional, desde la Fiscalía General de la Nación se instiga permanentemente a mantener las fumigaciones como único control al cultivo y a mantener una estrategia de criminalización a los campesinos; posturas que son reforzadas por los sectores de ultraderecha que se le quieren atravesar al proceso de paz.

En sustitución de cultivos, varias regiones del país: Guaviare, Nariño, Putumayo, Arauca, el Valle, Cauca, Córdoba y Antioquia, han construido y firmado acuerdos con comunidades y organizaciones campesinas. La oferta del gobierno son 36 millones de pesos para cada familia que decida cambiar de cultivos, distribuidos en pago de sueldo por un año, proyectos de ciclo corto, asesoría técnica y proyectos de largo plazo. Oferta que no resuelve las expectativas de las familias, dado que no son precisos los desembolsos del dinero y tampoco es claro el cultivo o cultivos alternativos a la coca, lo que hace que se vean como acciones inmediatas y no como un proceso sostenible, integral y de largo plazo. Así las cosas, se pone en marcha el Plan de Acción Inmediata- PAI en detrimento del Programa Nacional Integral de Sustitución de Cultivos Ilícitos.

Asimismo, en territorios y comunidades el Gobierno no siempre interviene de la manera más apropiada, pues en muchos casos lo hace intentando fragmentar procesos y privilegiando las acciones comunales por encima de las organizaciones de campesinos (comités de cocaleros), que en las veredas es a las que les compete directamente tomar las decisiones de asumir la sustitución voluntaria y llevar a la práctica las actividades económicas alrededor de los productos nuevos que les generen ingresos y condiciones para vivir mejor.

Pero lo más grave es que mientras por un lado se firman acuerdos de sustitución, por el otro llegan el ejército o la policía erradicando a la fuerza. El Gobierno da la orden a Rafael Pardo y Eduardo Díaz para sustituir 50 mil hectáreas y, a su vez, a la Policía y el Ejército para erradicar manualmente otras 50 mil hectáreas[6]. Esta situación ha generado entre los campesinos desconfianza en el proceso de sustitución y un ambiente generalizado de que el Gobierno no va a cumplir.

César Jerez, dirigente de la Asociación Nacional de Zonas de Reserva Campesina (Anzorc), dice que el Gobierno nacional tiene un compromiso con la Cumbre Agraria, y los paros realizados en 2013, 2014 y 2016, de despenalizar los cultivos de uso ilícito para sacar las personas de la cárcel, pero no tiene la intención de cumplir. El paro nacional que se promueve es para que el gobierno nacional cumpla[7].

Catatumbo, Tumaco, Guaviare, Cauca, Cáceres, Taraza, entre otros, han experimentado el ambiente de inconformidad con dicha política. Briceño en Antioquia, que fue seleccionado municipio piloto en sustitución voluntaria de cultivos de uso ilícito, recientemente hizo paro, ante los intentos de erradicación y la forma como se vienen adelantando las actividades de sustitución. “La principal petición de los campesinos es una buena infraestructura vial”, como quedó registrado en medios de comunicación[8].

Y un asunto más preocupante al respecto es que según se informó en la asamblea de campesinos cocaleros en Yarumal, realizada el 6 de mayo de 2017, actualmente hay 3.000 campesinos cultivadores encarcelados que están siendo judicializados. El 5 de mayo, Alexander Benavidez, que estaba en una reunión en Nariño con delegados del gobierno, las FARC y la Coccam, salió a hacer una diligencia personal y  fue detenido. Ahora está siendo procesado y judicializado.

Otro aspecto a considerar es que a la sustitución de cultivos de uso ilícito se le hace presión por parte de algunos sectores, los cuales indican el crecimiento del número de hectáreas cultivadas en los últimos años y su incomodidad a la prohibición de la aspersión aérea con glifosato por parte de la Corte Constitucional. Frente al número de hectáreas cultivadas no hay acuerdo. Según Naciones Unidas, en el país hay 96 mil hectáreas cultivadas[9] y Estados Unidos calcula unas 200 mil para el 2016[10].

Entre el Gobierno Nacional, las comunidades campesinas y las organizaciones, la sustitución se concibe diferente. Mientras para el primero hay afán de mostrar resultados rápidos, de tal suerte que se reduzcan los cultivos y se contrarresten los planteamientos que señalan la estrategia aplicada como un fracaso; para los segundos es un proceso gradual de mediano y largo plazo, con compromisos claros de las instituciones nacionales, departamentales y municipales que garanticen la sostenibilidad.

Los campesinos cultivadores de coca o coquicultores

Los municipios de Taraza, Cáceres, Nechí, El Bagre y Valdivia, cinco municipios del Bajo Cauca y el Norte de Antioquia, han venido en un proceso de organización en las veredas, construyendo comités de campesinos cultivadores y acciones comunales, y en las cabeceras municipales, las coordinadoras y mesas temáticas. De esta forma se da un proceso de organización y movilización social con iniciativa de articulación departamental y nacional, construyendo una agenda propia en el territorio, trabajando en la sustitución de cultivos de uso ilícito con base en programas de cultivos alternativos. El 6 de mayo de 2017 se conformó la Coordinadora Departamental de Cultivadores de Coca, Amapola y Marihuana (Coccam) en Antioquia con la participación de dos delegados(as) de 10 municipios del Norte, Nordeste y Bajo Cauca: Tarazá, Valdivia, Yarumal, Ituango, Toledo, Briceño, Anorí, Sabanalarga, Campamento y Cáceres.

El 17 de febrero de 2017 se conformó la coordinadora municipal de coquicultores de Valdivia. Ese día los cultivadores de coca marcha-ron por la troncal a la Costa Caribe a la altura del corregimiento Puerto Valdivia, Norte de Antioquia.
El 17 de febrero de 2017 se conformó la coordinadora municipal de coquicultores de Valdivia. Ese día los cultivadores de coca marcha-ron por la troncal a la Costa Caribe a la altura del corregimiento Puerto Valdivia, Norte de Antioquia.

Dos meses antes, el 22 de marzo de 2017 en el municipio de Valdivia, se realizó una reunión con organizaciones campesinas y con la participación de representantes de la Agencia Nacional de Sustitución de Cultivos de Uso Ilícito. Allí, las organizaciones de coquicultores afirmaron que de 172 veredas en cinco municipios de la región, 10.040 familias (41.280 personas) tienen que ver directamente con dicha problemática.

Fuente: Información de organizaciones de coquicultores entregada en  la reunión del 22 de marzo en Valdivia.
Fuente: Información de organizaciones de coquicultores entregada en  la reunión del 22 de marzo en Valdivia.

Mientras para el gobierno en el país hay unas 60.000 familias que viven de cultivos de uso ilícito, para organizaciones como la Coccam son unas 100 mil y para las FARC unas 250 mil que directa e indirectamente viven de dichos cultivos[11]. Estos datos, aunque imprecisos, dan una idea del significado y dimensión de esta problemática en el campo.

Desde la perspectiva de las organizaciones y comunidades campesinas, es poco coherente una política con dos enfoques contradictorios aplicados a la solución del problema de drogas ilícitas, en especial al tema de cultivos: sustitución voluntaria y erradicación forzosa. A dichas organizaciones les preocupa que la estrategia siga basada en la imposición, la estigmatización y la criminalización, y tienen temor por las pocas garantías de seguridad. Por su parte, los campesinos conciben legales sus actividades económicas y productivas en los cultivos de uso ilícito, así como las demás en el sistema económico, y por ello en muchos lugares se han empezado a denominar coquicultores.

Se asume que son comunidades de campesinos y campesinas con derecho a la tierra y al territorio, que por tanto aspiran a acceder a la tierra vía distribución planteada en el primer punto del acuerdo de paz con las FARC: Reforma Rural Integral.

De manera general, la sustitución de cultivos de uso ilícito está presentado tensiones grandes debido a la puesta en práctica de estrategias contradictorias, generando desconfianza en las organizaciones y comunidades campesinas. Se sigue imponiendo el enfoque de criminalidad e ilegalidad, y la erradicación forzada, en la que el cumplimiento de acuerdos de parte del gobierno implica para los campesinos un gran reto en la movilización y organización social.


[1] ​​Acuerdo final para la terminación del conflicto y la construcción de una paz estable y duradera. (2016). Colombia. Punto cuatro: Solución al Problema de las Drogas Ilícitas acordado en La Habana, el 16 de mayo de 2014.

[2] Acuerdo final para la terminación del conflicto y la construcción de una paz estable y duradera. Punto cuatro: Solución al Problema de las Drogas Ilícitas acordado en La Habana, el 16 de mayo de 2014, pág. 102

[3] Ibid. Pág. 103

[4] Semana. (2017). Gobierno y Farc ponen en marcha plan de sustitución de cultivos ilícitos. Recuperado de Semana: http://www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/gobierno-lanza-programa-nacional-integral-de-sustitucion-de-cuiltivos-de-uso-ilicito/513403.

[5]  Semana. (2017). Erradicación Forzada, ¿peor el remedio que la enfermedad?. Recuperado de Semana: http://www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/erradicacion-forzada-y-sustitucion-contra-los-cultivos-ilicitos-en-colombia/515733

[6] Información en el lanzamiento de la COCAM departamental en Yarumal.

[7] Entrevista a César Jerez realizada el 6 de mayo de 2017 en Yarumal.

[8] El espectador. (15 de enero de 2017). Reinicia plan de sustitución de cultivos en Briceño, Antioquia. El Espectador. Recuperado de: http://www.elespectador.com/noticias/nacional/antioquia/reinicia-plan-de-sustitucion-de-cultivos-briceno-antioq-articulo-674844

[9] El Tiempo. (8 de julio de 2016). Cultivos de coca crecen a niveles de hace 8 años. El Tiempo. Recuperado de: http://www.eltiempo.com/archivo/documento/CMS-16639346

[10] Gómez Masseri, S. (marzo 3 de 2017). Coca aumentó porque Gobierno bajó acciones para evitar líos con Farc. El Tiempo. Recuperado de: http://www.eltiempo.com/mundo/eeuu-y-canada/informe-de-ee-uu-sobre-cultivos-ilicitos-en-colombia-2016-63330

[11] Información coordinadora departamental COCAM el 6 de mayo de 2017 en Yarumal.

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  70. With havin so much written content do you ever run into any issues of plagorism or copyright infringement? My blog has a lot of unique content I’ve either authored myself or outsourced but it seems a lot of it is popping it up all over the internet without my authorization. Do you know any ways to help reduce content from being ripped off? I’d definitely appreciate it.

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  76. I believe that avoiding prepared foods would be the first step for you to lose weight. They could taste fine, but processed foods contain very little nutritional value, making you take more just to have enough vitality to get over the day. When you are constantly eating these foods, converting to whole grain products and other complex carbohydrates will assist you to have more power while consuming less. Good blog post.

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  81. My coder is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the costs. But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using WordPress on several websites for about a year and am nervous about switching to another platform. I have heard excellent things about blogengine.net. Is there a way I can import all my wordpress content into it? Any kind of help would be really appreciated!

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  83. Hi there! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering if you
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