Declaración final: Hacia la paz territorial y ambiental

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En la ciudad de Medellín, durante los días 29 y 30 de noviembre de 2017, convocados por el Instituto Popular de Capacitación, con el acompañamiento de la Mesa Social Minero-Energética y Ambiental por la Paz, y la organización Colombia Punto Medio; nos reunimos diferentes organizaciones sociales de las 9 subregiones del departamento de Antioquia, así como de otros territorios del país, como Marmato (Caldas), Cajamarca (Tolima) y Acacías (Meta), con el fin de dialogar e intercambiar experiencias, saberes, iniciativas y agendas, para plantearle al Estado colombiano, a la sociedad civil y a sus organizaciones en general, una serie de propuestas, construidas de forma colectiva, tendientes a la resolución, superación y transformación de los conflictos socioambientales y minero-energéticos que vienen generando graves daños y afectaciones a las comunidades de las cuales hacemos parte y representamos como líderes y lideresas sociales.

Teniendo en cuenta el actual escenario de implementación de los acuerdos de paz en todo el territorio nacional, consideramos que este es un momento propicio para, en aras de la construcción de paz la territorial y ambiental, presentar nuestras propuestas e iniciativas para fortalecer dichos procesos, y lograr que las aspiraciones de paz se consoliden y sean sostenibles en el tiempo.

Partimos de un punto en común: nuestra preocupación por los impactos negativos que genera la actual política minero-energética y ambiental promovida por los últimos gobiernos nacionales. La conocida “piñata de títulos” mineros a grandes empresas, generó grandes afectaciones socioeconómicas derivadas de la proscripción y criminalización de formas ancestrales y tradicionales de minería, así como por la persecución penal de los mineros informales, situación que está precarizando las condiciones de vida de los habitantes de las zonas mineras, toda vez que no encuentran posibilidades de formalización para desarrollar sus actividades, ni tampoco posibilidades de reconversión productiva serias y sostenibles en el tiempo, que consulten las necesidades y aspiraciones de las comunidades y personas que subsisten a partir de la actividad minera a pequeña y mediana escala.

En segundo lugar, nos preocupa que este favorecimiento a las grandes empresas mineras no exhibe beneficios para las finanzas públicas, todo lo contrario, los exorbitantes beneficios tributarios, al igual que los exiguos impuestos y regalías que aportan las empresas del sector minero, son insostenibles fiscalmente, pues atentan contra el patrimonio público representado en los recursos naturales no renovables, los cuales están siendo explotados para el único y exclusivo beneficio de las grandes mineras, produciendo una desfinanciación estatal que pone en vilo el bienestar general y el acceso público a los bienes y servicios, materiales e inmateriales, que garantizan los derechos fundamentales.

En tercer lugar, observamos que se trata de una política minero-energética socioambientalmente insostenible, debido a los graves daños que las grandes empresas minero-energéticas están generando a la biodiversidad y los ecosistemas que se albergan en diferentes territorios; lo que consecuentemente deriva en afectaciones a las comunidades que no pueden volver a acceder a los servicios ambientales que los ecosistemas dañados por la actividad económica de esas grandes empresas. Más grave aún, resulta que se siga pretendiendo afectar ecosistemas estratégicos como los páramos, los humedales y las zonas de reserva ambiental, para satisfacer intereses egoístas y mezquinos de las grandes empresas minero-energéticas, que no se traducen en ningún tipo de beneficio general. La promoción de estos intereses han puesto en riesgo el acceso a los derechos fundamentales al agua y el alimento: la protección de las despensas de agua y alimentos es innegociable, no existe la posibilidad de contraprestaciones económicas que puedan compensar las afectaciones a esos territorios y los recursos naturales que albergan.

En este sentido, compartimos el planteamiento de la Mesa social minero-energética y ambiental por la paz, en el sentido de “que debe producirse un viraje en el país para poner fin al saqueo de nuestros bienes naturales y dar paso a un Dialogo Nacional Minero-Energético y Ambiental que posibilite caminar hacia la construcción de políticas públicas que nos permita recuperar la soberanía y el control popular sobre la riqueza del subsuelo y el aprovechamiento para el beneficio del país de una industria nacional minero-energética que respete todas las formas de vida.”

Una cuarta consideración, tiene que ver con la necesidad de reformar y fortalecer la institucionalidad pública encargada de velar por la protección ambiental, la dedicada a la promoción del sector minero-energético, así como la encargada del manejo fiscal y tributario; de tal forma que aseguren la protección de los intereses generales de la comunidad y el acceso colectivo a los bienes comunes. Las prácticas de corrupción, a través de las llamadas “puertas giratorias”, deben ser proscritas; igualmente, las decisiones que afectan a las comunidades deben ser consultadas con ellas, tanto para comunidades indígenas y étnicas, como para las comunidades campesinas, mineras y agroecológicas.

En este sentido consideramos, en quinto lugar,  que es necesario el respeto a los procesos de consulta previa y popular que se vienen desarrollando en los territorios, como expresión máxima de la soberanía popular a través de la participación democrática. La financiación de estos procesos de participación política, así como el respeto irrestricto de las decisiones que allí se adopten, deben ser garantías insoslayables en aras de la construcción de la paz territorial y ambiental.

Finalmente, expresamos nuestra preocupación por lo que está sucediendo con la implementación de los acuerdos de paz, los cuales vienen siendo desvirtuados por las clases políticas hegemónicas quienes, en representación de actores empresariales y políticos vinculados al conflicto, están promoviendo la impunidad, sacrificando el respeto de los derechos de las víctimas a la verdad, la justicia, la reparación y las garantías de no repetición. No compartimos la mutilación de la Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz –JEP- para favorecer la impunidad de los mal llamados “terceros” con relación al conflicto armado; consideramos que estos escenarios de justicia transicional son propicios para que, desde un enfoque reconciliatorio y restaurativo, todos los actores que de una u otra forma hayan participado en el conflicto armado y se hayan beneficiado del mismo, comparezcan a asumir sus responsabilidades y a resarcir los daños producidos.

Asimismo, rechazamos contundentemente los intentos por tratar de hundir las circunscripciones especiales de paz por parte del Congreso de la República. Resulta inaudito que, bajo la excusa de la protección de las víctimas, se nos nieguen las posibilidades de participación política, en un escenario de exclusión y marginación; ese falaz argumento, lo que esconde es la negativa de las clases políticas dominantes a permitir la participación política de otros actores, así como la pervivencia de estigmas infundados en contra nuestra.

Teniendo en cuenta estas consideraciones, nos comprometemos a:

  1. Continuar con la defensa de nuestros territorios, no solo desde nuestras agendas particulares, sino generando escenarios de articulación que posibiliten procesos de movilización nacional, más allá de las legítimas diferencias que puedan existir entre nuestras diversas concepciones de la vida.
  2. Respaldar los acuerdos de paz originalmente pactados entre el gobierno nacional y las Farc-Ep, exigir que se rescate su sentido primigenio, asegurando los derechos de las víctimas a la verdad, la justicia y la reparación; así como los derechos a la participación política, la cual nos ha sido negada históricamente, y que nuevamente se nos niega con el hundimiento de las circunscripciones especiales de paz.
  3. Participar activamente en los escenarios políticos necesarios para la transformación de la actual política minero-energética y ambiental en el país, de tal forma que podamos construir y alcanzar la anhelada paz territorial y ambiental, a partir de la puesta en práctica de modelos de aprovechamiento de los recursos que eviten y prevengan todo tipo de daños y afectaciones de carácter socioambiental.
  4. Apoyar los compromisos de la III Reunión del coordinador nacional de la Mesa social minero-energética y ambiental por la paz, desde los diferentes territorios, a fin de fortalecer una agenda común de trabajo para la transformación de la política extractiva y la promoción de acciones de preservación del ambiente.

Medellín, noviembre 30 de 2017.

Organizaciones participantes:

  • IPC
  • Mesa Social Minero Energética y Ambiental por la Paz
  • Colombia Punto Medio
  • Corporación Nuevo Arco Iris
  • Coordinación Colombia-Europa-Estados Unidos
  • Colectivo por la Gente y los Bosques de la Serranía San Lucas
  • Aheramigua
  • Comité Cívico Prodefensa de Marmato
  • Colectivo socioambiental y juvenil de Cajamarca
  • Comité Ambiental y Campesino de Cajamarca y Anaime
  • Movete
  • Asovisna
  • Cahucopana
  • Asoagromicauca
  • ACA
  • COA
  • Asocbac
  • OIA
  • Asoviamcla
  • Ser Ciudadano
  • MMPV de San Roque
  • Cocoafroco
  • Red Pluriétnica y Territorial por la defensa de los Derechos Humanos
  • Mesa de derechos humanos de la Comuna 13
  • Asovicpaz
  • Resguardo Indígena La Mirla
  • Consejo Comunitario Fraguas
  • Mesa de víctimas de El Bagre
  • Aprocoa
  • Cocoapi

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