Tres historias que reclaman verdad: El Aro, La Escombrera y La Larga Tumaradó

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Presentación

Tras la firma del acuerdo de paz entre el Gobierno y la guerrilla de las FARC en 2016, Colombia se prepara para transitar hacia escenarios de memoria, verdad y justicia transicional. Saber ¿qué ocurrió en medio siglo de conflicto? ¿Quiénes fueron los responsables de esa violencia? ¿A quiénes beneficio la guerra? Y ¿Por qué pasó lo que pasó? Hace parte de los derechos de las víctimas, y de la sociedad en general, a la verdad, la justicia, la reparación y la NO repetición.

Sin embargo, hay sectores políticos, estatales, empresariales y hasta religiosos que se oponen a la develación de la verdad y descalifican o estigmatizan los relatos de memoria que han construido las víctimas y, principalmente, los sectores que trabajan en la defensa de los derechos de humanos. No en vano, el proyecto de Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz (JEP) sufrió modificaciones de fondo en su paso por el Congreso de la República, entre ellas, el hecho de que los terceros civiles ya no estarán obligados a presentarse ante los magistrados de la JEP, como se había planteado inicialmente en el acuerdo de paz; o el impedimento para que los abogados defensores de derechos humanos, que en el pasado hayan llevado procesos contra el Estado colombiano, puedan ser magistrados de la justicia especial; veto que ha desatado la polémica y ha sido referenciado como un caso de discriminación.

En este contexto, tiene el periodismo la responsabilidad social de contribuir en la construcción de la opinión pública mostrando los diferentes puntos de vista sobre la discusión y, principalmente, haciendo un esfuerzo por aportar a la verdad, entendiendo que éste es uno de los principios éticos fundamentales del ejercicio periodístico. Y aunque no siempre los periodistas pueden garantizar la verdad, si tienen la responsabilidad de luchar por la precisión, es decir, de verificar con exactitud todos los hechos ocurridos. Esto cobra mayor relevancia en un contexto en el que sectores políticos de ultraderecha propagan en medios de comunicación discursos cargados de mentiras para obstaculizar la construcción de paz.

Además, el periodismo tiene un desafío en lo regional, en tanto desde las regiones distintas organizaciones y movimientos de víctimas construyen relatos de memoria en los que demandan verdad sobre la violencia que sufrieron sus comunidades. En este sentido, las investigaciones periodísticas también tienen la función de recuperar y dar a conocer esos testimonios para rescatarlos del olvido y ayudar a construir relatos territoriales sobre lo sucedido.

Partiendo de lo anterior, el presente boletín periodístico, elaborado por la Agencia de Prensa del Instituto Popular de Capacitación (IPC), aborda tres casos emblemáticos en los que la verdad está siendo demandada por las víctimas como parte integral de sus procesos de reparación colectiva: la comunidad del corregimiento El Aro del municipio de Ituango, Norte de Antioquia, donde el 22 de octubre de 1997 fueron masacradas 15 personas; las mujeres que buscan a sus familiares desaparecidos en la Comuna 13 de Medellín en la zona conocida como La Escombrera; y las comunidades afros y mestizas que exigen la restitución de las tierras que les fueron despojadas en las cuencas de los ríos La Larga y Tumaradó, entre el Urabá antioqueño y el Bajo Atrato chocoano.

Estos tres informes periodísticos han sido elaborados en el marco del proceso de reparación colectiva al Instituto Popular de Capacitación iniciado en el año 2013 por oferta del Estado colombiano a través de la Unidad para la Atención y Reparación Integral a las Víctimas (Uariv).

Ver boletín virtual: 

Autor: Yhobán Hernández Cifuentes

Desde Riosucio (Chocó) hasta Turbo (Antioquia), comunidades afros y mestizas sufrieron el despojo de tierras en un periodo de violencia en medio del cual se expandió la agroindustria del banano, la ganadería y la palma. Hoy, aún entre agresiones, las víctimas del territorio colectivo esperan la restitución y exigen verdad sobre la participación del empresariado en la usurpación de predios.

Autora: Katalina Vásquez Guzmán

Con la llegada de Federico Gutiérrez a la Alcaldía de Medellín se estancaron las excavaciones y la construcción de un plan integral de búsqueda para La Escombrera, pese a que la administración anterior había dejado 750 millones iniciales para la continuidad.

Autores: Katalina Vásquez Guzmán y Yeison Camilo García

Entre el 22 y el 26 de octubre de 1997 un grupo de paramilitares de las Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia recorrió el corregimiento El Aro del municipio de Ituango, masacrando a 15 personas en estado de indefensión. Por estos hechos la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos condenó al Estado colombiano en julio de 2006.

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