En Antioquia, agresiones a líderes y defensores de DDHH aumentaron en 90% durante 2018

Los homicidios y las amenazas fueron los tipos de agresión más frecuentes en las subregiones del departamento. Ante esto, las organizaciones defensoras de derechos humanos consideran que el papel de la institucionalidad ha sido insuficiente para proteger la vida e integridad de líderes y defensores.

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Los líderes sociales y defensores de derechos humanos de territorios rurales han recibido la mayoría de las agresiones. Foto: Yeison Camilo García, Agencia de Prensa IPC.

El Nodo Antioquia de la Coordinación Colombia-Europa-Estados Unidos y el Proceso Social de Garantías presentaron ayer el Informe sobre la situación de las y los defensores de derechos humanos en Antioquia, 2018. Este plantea que el año pasado se registraron al menos 470 agresiones, en comparación con 248 descritas en el informe del año 2017.

Yesid Zapata, vocero de ambas plataformas, aseguró que hubo un “aumento sustancial” en los casos de homicidios, amenazas (individuales y colectivas) y desplazamientos forzados. Los agredidos fueron, principalmente, liderazgos campesinos, comunitarios y relacionados con el proceso de sustitución de cultivos ilícitos, quienes ejercían labores de defensa de derechos en sus territorios.

Según el Informe, en el Valle de Aburrá se presentaron 99 agresiones, sobre todo en los municipios de Barbosa y Medellín, equivalentes a un 33%. Le siguen Bajo Cauca (32%), Urabá (13%), Norte (11%), Occidente (6%), Nordeste (3%) y en menor escala el resto de subregiones. Cabe resaltar que en Bajo Cauca y Norte fue donde más homicidios se registraron: 13 y 10, respectivamente.

Los agredidos, en muchos casos por ejercer su derecho a la denuncia y la protesta, identificaron como principal victimario a grupos paramilitares, como las AGC y los ‘Caparrapos’, en 326 casos. En el resto de casos, los responsables serían grupos guerrilleros e integrantes de instituciones que estigmatizan, persiguen y judicializan a quienes lideran prácticas como la movilización social.

Esta situación humanitaria la padecen varios departamentos del país. Así lo insinúa el Informe cuando retoma cifras de la Defensoría del Pueblo para sostener que “el compendio de casos registrados entre el 1 de enero del 2016 y el 31 de diciembre del 2018 da como saldo 431 homicidios contra defensores y defensoras”. De ese total, 25% ocurrieron en Cauca, 14% en Antioquia y 7% en Norte de Santander.

Y agrega que “la Defensoría del Pueblo estableció que durante el 2018 ocurrieron 172 homicidios de personas que defendían los derechos humanos, un caso cada dos días; 158 ocurrieron contra hombres y 14 casos contra mujeres, todos conservando siempre los mismos porcentajes, patrones de sistematicidad y concentrándose focalmente en los departamentos de Cauca (35), Antioquia (24), Norte de Santander (18)”.

¿Cómo han reaccionado las instituciones?

Tanto la Coordinación como el Proceso Social le habían advertido al Gobierno que la firma del Acuerdo de Paz con la guerrilla de las FARC-EP podría traer consecuencias adversas; por ejemplo, convertirse en un “punto de inflexión” para el aumento progresivo de las agresiones contra líderes y defensores de derechos humanos que apoyaran la votación favorable del plebiscito y la implementación de los acuerdos en sus territorios.

Aunque esa advertencia se ha hecho realidad, a través de agresiones selectivas y sistemáticas, “el Gobierno todavía no está cumpliendo con sus compromisos en materia de prevención y protección a defensores y defensoras», sentenció el vocero. Para él, eso convierte a la institucionalidad en la principal agresora, por omisión en el desarrollo de sus responsabilidades constitucionales.

En efecto, la lectura desde esas plataformas es que las instituciones no están cumpliendo cabalmente sus funciones. Sobre la Defensoría del Pueblo, comentó que emite información valiosa a través del Sistema de Alertas Tempranas, pero hay territorios de subregiones como el Oriente, el Suroeste y el Valle de Aburrá de donde no han emitido alertas. “Eso podría indicar que hay una especie de omisión u ocultamiento de lo que está ocurriendo”.

Sobre la Unidad Nacional de Proteccion (UNP), expresó que “son muy demorados los trámites, a pesar de las tutelas que se han ejercido al respecto”. Además, “los analistas desconocen completamente las realidades que viven los líderes y defensores de derechos humanos en los territorios y cuáles son los factores de riesgo a contemplar a la hora de definir el tipo de medida para protegerlos”.

Su valoración de la Fiscalía General de la Nación tampoco fue favorable: “Hace un ejercicio interesante”, pero no ha avanzado significativamente en la investigación y esclarecimiento de los crímenes contra líderes y defensores de derechos humanos; es decir, pocas veces ha logrado identificar a los autores materiales e intelectuales. Por eso, “hablamos de que alrededor de un 95% de los casos está en la impunidad”.

Ante ese panorama, el vocero de ambas plataformas le recomendó al Gobierno que apoye la construcción de paz, mediante la implementación del Acuerdo. Puntualmente resaltó la “cantidad de jurisprudencia”, refiriéndose a mecanismos de justicia transicional, que está siendo desconocida como medio para garantizar los derechos colectivos de las comunidades.

“Creemos que es fundamental que el Estado colombiano le apueste férreamente al Sistema Integral de Verdad, Justicia, Reparación y Garantías de No Repetición, porque esto cobija de manera transversal las garantías hacia las y los defensores de derechos humanos” que continúan siendo asesinados: en lo corrido de 2019 se han registrado al menos tres casos debidamente confirmados en Antioquia, concluyó.

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