El equipo del periódico alternativo Universo Centro realizó hasta este jueves el foro Pensar la crónica roja. Homicidio y crimen organizado. Para uno de sus conversatorios, invitaron a los exalcaldes Alonso Salazar (2008-2011) y Aníbal Gaviria (2012-2015) a discutir sobre cómo se lucha desde la institucionalidad local, tanto a través de políticas como de intervención, por la seguridad en Medellín. 

Ambos coinciden en que, por fenómenos como el paramilitarismo, su desmovilización y posterior mutación, la seguridad ha sido el tema más importante para los últimos alcaldes. De hecho, Salazar considera que Medellín es la ciudad que más per cápita aporta al asunto de la seguridad en el país”; y Gaviria, que “Medellín ha tenido, y tiene, más injerencia que otras ciudades en temas de seguridad. 

Sin embargo, coinciden también en que la percepción de inseguridad está aumentando. Esto se debería a que la política de seguridad de la ciudad es populista y tiene un enfoque criminalista, que reduce la intervención institucional al desarrollo de operativos militares y la presentación de capturas; mientras las macroestructuras criminales extienden sus redes ilegales nacional e internacionalmente. 

Uno de los datos que evidencia el fracaso de la actual política de seguridad es la estadística de homicidios.  Gaviria afirma que, desde el año 1991, cuando Medellín se ubicó como la ciudad más violenta del mundo, es la primera vez que aumenta la tasa de homicidios cuatro años consecutivos (2016-2019). “Pero a uno, no le da la impresión de que la ciudad sepa eso, entienda eso, esté discutiendo sobre eso”. 

Y agrega que “en materia de seguridad, la realidad de la ciudad es muy compleja, muy preocupante” y que “los resultados son supremamente negativos”. Ante eso, cuestiona por qué “eso no está reflejado en la opinión pública”; por lo contrario, “los índices de popularidad del gobernante son altos”. En efecto, las encuestas de opinión revelan que cerca del 90% de los consultados tienen una imagen favorable del alcalde Federico Gutiérrez. 

Ante esa paradoja en la percepción de la ciudadanía, Jorge Giraldo, decano de Humanidades en la Universidad Eafit y moderador del conversatorio, se pregunta: ¿Cómo pude ocurrir que distintas encuestas revelen una de las percepciones en seguridad más bajas de los últimos años y, a la vez, una imagen de favorabilidad del alcalde que va en ascenso? 

Salazar deduce que eso se debe a tres factores: «Eprimero es nombrar al jefe de las encuestas gerente de Empresas Públicas de Medellín; me parece que eso puede ser un factor que ha influido en todo ese proceso”. El segundo, dice, es la inversión de “un presupuesto de 150.000 millones” para pauta publicitaria en medios de comunicación locales y nacionales. Y el tercero es la “réplica del modelo Uribe, del modelo Trump, donde la verdad importa muy poco. 

Al respecto, Gaviria comenta que podría haber un cuarto factor: “En ese mismo tipo de personajes se tiene una muy buena capacidad de conectar y aprovechar las facetas negativas, morbosas, del pensamiento de la sociedad y del ciudadano. Y eso se ha hecho con maestríaPara explicarse, pone como ejemplo las reacciones que ha generado el caso del niño homicida, aprehendido recientemente. 

«Lo que uno ve en las redes sociales es una cascada de personas solicitando –a las autoridades mayores penas, bajar la edad para hacerlos imputables: pero muy pocas preguntándose qué pasa en una sociedad, en un Estado, donde un niño tiene dos homicidios y, según Fiscalía, ha participado de alguna forma en otros diez. Yo creo que ahí faltaron muchos jardines Buen Comienzo, y sobran muchos helicópteros”. 

Tras la conversación, uno de los principales reclamos de Salazar y Gaviria es que la percepción no debería superar la realidad. En ese sentido, coinciden en que, si la Alcaldía pretende erradicar la criminalidad como factor de inseguridad en la ciudad, no basta con intervenciones militaristas; también es necesario erradicar condiciones como la desigualdad, que reproducen la violencia. 

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